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Recognizing an Authentic Eucharistic Community

Updated: Dec 12, 2023



Preface

The purpose of this paper is to present a brief study of the Four Movements in the Eucharist and be able to recognize an authentic Eucharistic community. The paper follows the four movements of the Eucharist which are found in Ignatian Spirituality, as presented in the book Spiritual Intimacy and Community: An Ignatian View of the Small Faith Community by Fr. John English. S.J. (1924-2004)


This paper is divided into four parts. The first part is entitled: Remembering God’s Marvelous Acts. Much like the Hebrew faithful, by praying the Eucharist prayer, Christians discover the necessity of maintaining their relationship with God.


The second part is entitled: Sensing God's Continual Presence. Through the Eucharistic prayer, we remember God’s continual presence within humanity and we sense God’s continual presence through the Eucharistic. We will present the Celebration of the Eucharistic as a story-telling event, a sensual experience and a sacramental expression of faith.


The third part is entitled: Appreciating the Great Labour of Christ's Passion. Eucharistic celebrations express faith in Jesus Christ. The Eucharist is a sacrificial meal where a new covenant is made with God through Jesus Christ. Areas researched are Trust in God, the Words of Jesus, Victory over Death, Fulfillment, Salvation and Atonement, and Reconciliation.


The fourth and final part is entitled: Going forth with Hope and Energy. The Eucharist must characterize the life of the community. The Eucharistic Community appreciates and is thankful for God’s work through Christ’s life, death and resurrection. Topics covered are Going Forth with Energy, Going Forth with Hope, Going Forth Individually, and Going Forth as a Community.


I will conclude my paper with some final thoughts on Life in the Eucharist.


Remembering God's Marvelous Acts


The Christian celebration, or 'the Lord’s Supper' as Saint Paul called it, has been known, at least since the second century, as “the Eucharist or the Thanksgiving.” (1) The earliest evidence of a Eucharistic Prayer, which is functionally a point of contact with the Divine, derives from the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus (d. 215 A.D). (2) There could not have been a church or Eucharist, if the Word of God had not been heard. The Word of God is the “Divine self-communication;” (3) and it is through the Eucharistic celebration and prayer that we perpetually learn that God connects with us through Jesus Christ in the Eucharist.


A couple of good ways to recollect God’s marvelous acts in human history are to break open the “Word of God” (4) through the scriptures and to look back at the beginnings of what would eventually become Eucharist prayers. As a people of faith, it is always important to remember that God has already spoken, and the record of His Word is in the Scriptures.


Certainly the Eucharistic prayer, which is evoked at every Communion service or Mass, has roots to a Jewish literary and cultic form called “the berakhah or blessing.” (5) In order to better understand the berakhah, it is best to break it down into three parts: a) praise: an introductory formula usually beginning with some form of the word berakhah, 'to bless'; b) the anamnesis of the mirabilia Dei: essentially this is a working out of the reasons for praise such as God’s wonderful deeds in both creation and His peoples’ history and c) the doxology: which is the concluding formula expressing the most important elements of “the wonderful works of God.”(6)


The berakhah can be understood as the model for the Eucharistic prayer and a prayer of praise to God for “past and present Graces.” (7) It is a vitally important prayer because it reminds the Hebrew people of the great deeds that God imparted into their history. Every time they pray as a community they recall it and hail it as part of their Divine story.


Much like the Hebrew faithful, by praying the Eucharist prayer, Christians discover the necessity of maintaining their relationship with God. The celebration of the Eucharist is central for Christians who wish to “renew and reinforce” (8) both their relationship with God and each other. It is a way to strengthen an awareness of His continual presence among us.


The anamnesis in the Eucharist Prayer is much like the Jewish berakhah as it expresses a motive for praising God. It interprets of what is being done in fulfilling the Lord’s command “Do this as my memorial.” (9) The key thing to remember is that the “the whole liturgy is sacramental,” (10) meaning that there is a transforming act and an ascending movement. And the very goal of this movement of ascension is to remove us from our daily lives and have us participate in the Divine.


The Divine world is not merely a foreign existence, different from God’s creation which was given to us. It is rather our present existence, “already perfected in Christ, but not yet in us.” (11) It is our world redeemed and restored through Christ. Through the Eucharistic prayer, we remember. We remember God’s continual presence within humanity. As a faith filled community, we especially celebrate this continual presence through the celebration of the Eucharist as “we present ourselves with the gifts of bread and wine.” (12)


Sensing God's Continual Presence


How do we sense God’s continual presence through the Eucharistic? Though there may be many ways to sense God’s continual presence, generally speaking, there are at least three ways to sense the presence of God through the Eucharist: the Storytelling Event, Sensual Experience, and Sacramental Expression.


The Story-telling Event


Since its inception, the Christian Eucharistic gathering has been a story-telling event. (13) The sense of hearing was employed to regenerate the faith community as generations came and went. It was a matter of communal identity which motivated Christians to continuously tell the story of their Lord Jesus. With the help of the New Testament we are able to recreate what the early Christians did and said in the retelling of Jesus’ life, ministry, death and resurrection.


The celebration of the Eucharist would also be the re-telling and explanation of God’s relationship to humanity within a Christian context. What mattered here was that the story came alive through Eucharistic commemoration with the abiding presence of this new risen Lord. (14) The Eucharistic celebration declares God’s message of love and forgiveness, (15) and encourages us to forgive as we would be forgiven. It permits prayer and therefore Divine assistance. And it ultimately feeds us with the body and blood of Christ given for the sins of the whole world, including us and the people we harm.


Indeed, the Eucharist is about Salvation. We are saved from death, sin, fear, (and) danger. (16) In the Eucharist Jesus meets His disciples. Through this story, He instructs them, challenges, inspires, heals, transforms, and strengthens them, Jesus leads and lives in His disciples. In our present age, the Eucharistic celebration tells its own story as faithful Christians understand and reinterpret that tradition in light of its own experience of trying to live out Christian faith and discipleship. The story telling event continues.


Sensual Experience


When the Christian community interacts in the story of Jesus Christ they are beginning to experience Him is a physical way. The Eucharist is a sensual experience. (17) It is tangible. The other senses now become involved. The meticulous building up of the Spiritual elements in the Eucharist can develop such Spiritual experience.


God’s continual presence can be experienced in a very real way. We touch, taste, see and smell the bread and wine. When one includes all the senses in the communal celebration of the Eucharist, potential spiritual awareness can heighten the participant’s ability to experience the story as a ‘moment of Grace’ or a Sacramental event.


Sacramental Expression of Faith


The Eucharistic celebration is a memorial meal. It responds to the command of Christ: “Do this for my memorial.” (18) The perpetual memorial is addressed to both God and to humanity. God is addressed in the sense that the community prays that God will not forget His generosity towards His people and He will continue His plans for Salvation. Humanity is addressed in the sense that all people should thank God for His involvement in human affairs, continue to be faithful to the commitments of their forefathers, and feed upon them with God’s Salvation. In remembering Christ’s death and passion, we keep the memory of Christ’s power to redeem us. Consequently, the primary act of worship for the Christian Community is praise and thanksgiving (19) for its Salvation.


The Christian community also believes that in Christ, we have the new Adam, the perfect man, and the Eucharistic life restored. The offering to God of bread and wine, the food that must be eaten in order to live, is an offering from a grateful people.


In the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, in the Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, we read, “And here we offer and present unto thee, O Lord, ourselves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and living sacrifice unto thee.” (20) The Christian, with the Eucharist as a central element, in its relationship with God offers himself in Christ, in memory of His sacrifice. That being said, the gathering of the Christian Faithful for the Eucharistic celebration is a Sacramental expression of Christian identity where, as a faith community, there is no longer Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, but where all are one in Christ Jesus. (Galatians 3:28) (21)

The Eucharistic celebration is also a Covenant meal. It is celebrated in Christ because He has already offered all that is to be offered to God. When this is understood and experienced Sacramentally, the faithful can be at peace with God and with one another. They will be better prepared to take Communion at the Lord’s Table. (22)


What makes it Sacramental? The early Christians understood that in order to become the Temple of the Holy Spirit, they must ascend to heaven where Christ has ascended. (23) They grasped that this ascension was a requirement of their mission and ministry to the world. By participating fully in the Eucharist celebration, the Christian would be in Heaven or living in God’s rule, absorbed into the new life of the Kingdom. And after the celebration of the Eucharist or “liturgy of the ascension,” (24) they would then return to this world, filled with “joy and peace” as witnesses of God’s Kingdom. This is truly a moment of Grace where we experience, through our senses, the great labour of Christ’s Passion.


Appreciating the Great Labour of Christ's Passion


It is at this point that we enter into the labour of God with the words of Christ at the Last Supper. (25) It is in the Eucharistic prayer and the words instituted at the Last Supper by Jesus Christ that we begin to understand the significance of Christ’s passion. It is also in this event that people are able to experience Christ using their five senses. They are able to see, hear, touch, smell, and taste Christ in the communal event. They authentically experience Jesus Christ.

Trust in God


The Eucharistic celebration is both a communal event and a fellowship meal. (26) It is a time when the faithful openly admit their spiritual need. They begin the Eucharistic celebration by asking Jesus to have mercy on them, because for them, they simply fall short of divine expectations. “Lord have mercy upon us. Christ have mercy upon us. Lord have mercy upon us.” (27)


They express their need for God’s help and their own sense of weakness and unworthiness. “We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy table.” (28) They place their trust in His merciful love, and come forward to receive His gift of life and strength. (29) “Lord I am not worthy, that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only and my soul shall be healed. (30)


The Words of Jesus: “This is my Body”


Saint Paul records the words as “This cup is the new covenant in my blood.” We have to ask ourselves, what Covenant? We, of course are quite familiar with the old covenant between God and Moses, between God and the Hebrew people, but what of this new covenant?


This new covenant refers to a binding relationship based on mutual promises made between God, through Jesus Christ and His people. The Eucharist is used by Christ as a Sacrificial meal recollecting what would be the one Sacrifice on Calvary. It is by consecration (31) that the bread becomes the body of Christ. He “gave it to his disciples, saying Take, eat: This is my Body which is given for you: Do this in remembrance of me.” (32)


The words of consecration are Jesus’. They are not the words of the priest, but Jesus’ words. It is Christ that consecrates the bread and makes it a Sacrament. What was once bread and wine is now Sacramentally the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. What the disciples of Christ receive is, in reality, the body of Christ. (33)


Therefore receiving the bread is more than a matter of obtaining some sort of physical nourishment. It is a symbol of work and a symbol of life and, when shared, it is charged with familial and social values. (34) People do not just consume the body of Christ, but they actually become part of the Body of Christ. This meal is so much more than a meal. It is life changing at its very core.


After one becomes part of the Body of Christ, he is then able to become part of the binding relationship mentioned above. In the Anglican Catholic celebration of the Eucharistic Jesus says, “This is my blood of the New Covenant, which is shed for you and for the remission of sins: Do this, as oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me.” (35) Wine was a good choice for the last Supper. It is a natural drink which stimulates the human spirit.


An Old Testament example of this is in the Jewish wedding ritual where couples drink and then break the same cup as a sign of union. All one has to do is look at Christ’s changing of the water into wine at the wedding of Cana. Wine is a valuable symbol of sharing and communion. The entire Christian tradition has experienced a special relation between the Eucharist wine (spirit) and the Holy Spirit. (36)


Victory over death


As bread and wine are united with Christ and converted into his body and blood, the believers share Christ’s triumph over death. Simply put, Jesus wants to impart His very unique message of His, and therefore our, triumph over death. This experience has comforted countless faithful Christians over the centuries as they received the Holy Communion when preparing to die.

Fulfillment


The Eucharistic celebration and certainly Jesus’ Last Supper was an earth shattering event; meaning the Last Supper is seen as the fulfillment of both events past and the eschatological anticipation of the fullness of God’s rule. (37) It is through Jesus’ death that these events are realized and end-time inaugurated.


Put in the context of historical images and events, the underlying meaning of the actual words “this is my body” and “this is my blood” are clarified. They indicate the double self-gift of Jesus, the one whereby He gives Himself up to His heavenly Father, as well as to the disciples at the Supper table as a means of sharing in the first fruits (38); being the benefits of New Covenant. Every time the faithful celebrate the Eucharist, they take part in this perpetual memorial (39) of Jesus Christ which makes them benefactors of the first fruits of the Kingdom of God.

Salvation and Atonement


What Jesus does for us at the last supper is designed to affect our actions at the Lord’s Supper and beyond. Christ’s saving work for us, which is an unrepeatable Sacrifice, brings benefits which we summarize as Salvation and Atonement. (40) The faithful are given, through the Eucharist, opportunities to receive the benefits of the Resurrection in their own current state of affairs.


The Eucharistic prayer acknowledges the gratitude of humanity offered to God through the meal itself. This gratitude is mostly for humanity’s deliverance from sin and death achieved by Jesus in his paschal mystery. (41) With the addition of “for the remission of sins” in Matthew 26:28, there is evidence for the belief that through the Cross and present in the Eucharist, forgiveness of sins is extended to the community. (42)


As one begins to appreciate the labour of Christ’s Passion, there is a growing understanding of Christ’s interaction in people’s lives. Because of this, life has new meaning in relationship to Christ. This transformative experience happens to individual Christians and communities throughout the world. For the believer, Jesus was the perfect Eucharist. He offered himself in total obedience, love, and thanksgiving to God. (43) For Jesus, God was His very life and in Him God became our life.


Christians believe that Jesus gave His body and blood as food for their everlasting life. They proclaim their faith as they look at the bread of life and the cup of salvation. Christians demonstrate their faith by their reverence for these Sacred gifts which are given to God’s Holy People.

Reconciliation


It is Christian belief that Jesus sacrificed Himself for the remission or forgiveness of sins. But also important was His great Commandment that we love our neighbour as we would love ourselves. If sincerely received, the Eucharist can be an instrument of that positive change for both the individual and the community-at-large.


The place to begin is at the table and around the table where there is conversation. Within this conversation people talk as well as listen, and they express their concerns and thanks for both themselves and others. (44) Sharing in this meal can be a rather cathartic experience, making it a potential place for reconciliation.


Individual confessions and the word of forgiveness acknowledge this reconciliation. (45) The Christ that we receive in the Eucharist creates within in us a more intensely creative love and empowers an authentic transformation which is released into a divided world. (46) In this way the faithful can go forth with an invigorated spirit full of hope and energy.

Going forth with Hope and Energy


The Eucharist provides us with a deep sense of hope and energy. We experience our unity with each other at Communion. Jesus shares himself with us so that we can learn to share Him with others. We are fed so that we can become a feeding community.


Going forth with Energy


Saint Paul tells us, “For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes.” (1 Corinthians 11:26) When we participate in the celebration of the Eucharist we participate in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. It’s as if we had been present at those events almost two thousand years ago. (47) The Apostle reminds us that the bread that we eat is a sharing in Christ’s body. (48) The early Church regarded the single loaf of bread as a unifying sign of a people becoming one body through Jesus by way of the Holy Spirit.


Like Saint Luke and Saint Paul, Saint Augustine believed that our sharing in the Eucharist changes us. (49) Saint Augustine repeated this belief often, “Behold what you have received!” he told them. “Therefore, just as you see that the bread which was made in one mass so may you also be one Body by loving one another, by having one faith, one hope, and an undivided charity.” (50) This union is reinforced by our love for God and for one another. The result of celebrating the Eucharist and subsequent reception of the communion wafer is our very own formation by Jesus into His body, making us one with Him in both loving and serving God our Father.


Once the celebration of the Eucharist is Sacramentally recalled and then experienced, especially as a community, the effects of the event enable the participants to share in both Christ’s death and His risen life. (51) When the Faithful associate themselves with the bread and wine they may begin to experience the affects of what Saint Ignatius, early in the second century, described as “the medicine of immorality and the antidote that we should not die but live forever in Jesus Christ.” (From J.B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, Pg. 68) (52)


When we are present at the Paschal table of the Kingdom (53) a new energy comes into our lives. What we have offered - our life, ourselves, and the whole world - we offer in Christ and as Christ because He Himself has assumed our life and (He) is our life. (54) In the Eucharist, Christ’s power is unleashed; (55) it is an energy that the Church has no control over. His presence is dynamic and transforming; (56) He shapes the community into His body, bringing it into holiness, enabling it to proclaim to the world the Good News of Jesus Christ.


Going forth with Hope


Eucharistic celebrations express faith in Jesus Christ. It is the basic commitment of those who celebrate. (57) It is designed to transform the celebrants and empower them to return to a life of deeper understanding, renewed strength and invigorated hope. (58)


The Eucharist is both an eschatological sign (59) and an anticipatory experience of the future. It offers to the faith filled community God’s purpose; past, present and future. In the Eucharist, we have the opportunity to open up our senses in the here and now to the final blessedness of complete harmony and unity with God. (60)


The Eucharist is a Sacrificial meal where a new covenant is made with God through Jesus Christ. There is a total acceptance of the lifestyle that Christ has shown us. Thus, when we depart from the Eucharistic celebration, our lives should be different - we should be ready to live according to the new covenant of love. (61)


Through the Eucharist one can be immediately compelled into giving greater praise for all that God has done for us. We are saved! We are a new people! Christ lives among us! (62) Saint Matthew even records that the disciples sang a hymn after celebration of the first Eucharist. (Saint Matthew 26:30). (63)


An important factor in the celebration of the Eucharist is the participant’s formation of the conscience. (64) In the Eucharist, Christian conscience is formed by the acceptance, and therefore the responsibility of commitment the new covenant offered in Christ’s death and resurrection. Jesus unites us with Him and consecrates us to His service of love and just as the Holy Bread is given back and distributed, we are given back to ourselves and sent out as agents of divine love. (65) In communion we have our food for the journey. During the week, filled with a deep sense of hope and energy, we continue on our journey with Jesus and His people. (66)

Going forth Individually


It was because of the early Church’s grateful acknowledgement of the good things that God did for us through Jesus Christ that the Pascha Domini or Paschal Mystery was instituted. (67) The Christian response is praise; a praise which arose from the consciousness of being the beneficiary of this event. (68) In the Eucharist we celebrate, above all, the life, death, and resurrection of the Jesus of Nazareth. His life is the benchmark by which the faithful Christian lives. As Saint Ambrose of Milan said, “I, who am always sinning, ought always to have a remedy.” (69)


Jesus and the Eucharist give the faithful hope that even though they may begin at a low point, their desire to improve their life is attainable. The Eucharist roots us in the Just life of Jesus. (70) The individual is pushed into the future where he or she will be united with both the Divine and each other.

Going forth as a Community


The liturgy of the Eucharist is best understood as a journey or procession. It is the journey of the Community into the dimension of the Kingdom or God’s rule. “Dimension” meaning the sacramental entrance into the risen life of Christ. (71)


Of course, celebrating the Eucharist does not make a Eucharistic community. (72) The Eucharist must characterize the life of the community. It is a perpetual corporate reunion of the Body of Christ. A Eucharistic community is meant to go beyond the narrow one-way reception of the ‘precious blood and broken body’ of Jesus.


The Eucharistic life is a movement of love and adoration towards God, the movement in which all things will revealed and fulfilled. (73) The Eucharist is not the end of the journey, but more of a beginning, and things that were regarded as impossible are again revealed as possible. The time of the world has become the time of the Christian Faith Community, the time of salvation and redemption. (74)


Conclusion: Life in the Eucharist


By remembering God’s marvelous acts we first recognize the Word of God as the “Divine self-communication;” and it is through the Eucharistic celebration and prayer that we perpetually learn that God connects with us through Jesus Christ in the Eucharist. Much like the Hebrew faithful, by praying the Eucharist prayer, Christians discover the necessity of maintaining their relationship with God. The anamnesis in the Eucharist Prayer is much like the Jewish berakhah as it expresses a motive for praising God. Through the Eucharistic prayer, we remember God’s continual presence within humanity.


The Eucharistic celebration is a memorial meal. This perpetual memorial is addressed to both God and to humanity. The Christian, with the Eucharist as a central element in his relationship with God, offers Himself in Christ in memory of His sacrifice. We sense God’s continual presence through the Eucharistic. We experience it through the continuous telling of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Since its inception, the Christian Eucharistic gathering has been that story-telling event. The story telling and the Eucharistic event continue as both a Sacramental expression and a sensual experience of the Covenant.


Christians, through the Eucharist, appreciate the labour of Christ’s Passion and embrace a binding relationship based on the mutual promises made between God, through Jesus Christ and His people. What was once bread and wine is now Sacramentally the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Those who participate in the celebration of the Eucharist share in Jesus’ triumph over death. For Jesus, God was His very life and in Him God became our life.


Eucharistic celebrations express faith in Jesus Christ. His life is the benchmark by which the faithful Christian lives. The Eucharist is a Sacrificial meal where a new covenant is established with God through Jesus Christ. When we enter into this new covenant we can proclaim for ourselves that Christ lives in us and among us! The Eucharist roots us in the Just life of Jesus.


So, how do we recognize an Authentic Eucharistic community? The Eucharist must characterize the life of the community. It defines them. A Eucharistic Community remembers God’s marvelous acts in creation; it senses God’s continual presence in the world, especially in its own worship to God. The Eucharistic Community appreciates and is thankful for God’s work through Christ’s life, death and resurrection. And above all the Eucharistic Community after being nourished with the Sacrificial meal goes forth into an at times cruel world, nourished with the hope and energy supplied by Jesus Christ.



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Citations


1. Living Bread Saving Cup - Robert J. Ledogar - pg 64.

2. Catholic Encyclopaedia – Reverend Peter J. Stravinkas – pg 370.

3. The Eucharistic Way - John Baycroft - pg 29.

4. Spiritual Intimacy - John English - pg 185.

5. Living Bread Saving Cup - Ledogar- pg 64.

6. ibid.

7. Gifts that differ - David Power - pg 165.

8. The Eucharistic Way - Baycroft - pg 17.

9. Living Bread Saving Cup - James Dallon - Pg 117.

10. Readings in Christian Theology - Alexander Schmemann - pg 288.

11. ibid.

12. Spiritual Intimacy - English - pg 185.

13. Sacraments & Sacramentality - Bernard Cooke – pg. 151.

14. ibid.

15. The Eucharistic Way - Baycroft - pg 71.

16. ibid - pg 76.

17. ibid - pg 11.

18. Living Bread Saving Cup - Philippe Rouillard - Pg 139.

19. ibid - Power - pg 173.

20. The Book of Common Prayer – pg 85.

21. Ministry in the Church – Paul Bernier pg 237.

22. Communion – Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops - pg 3.

23. Readings in Christian Theology - Schmemann - pg 283.

24. ibid.

25. Spiritual Intimacy - English - pg 186.

26. The Eucharistic Way - Baycroft - pg 43.

27. The Book of Common Prayer – pg 70.

28. ibid – pg 83.

29. Communion – Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops - pg 7.

30. Anglican Missal - Ordinary and Canon of the Mass – pg 92.

31. Reading in Christian Theology - St. Ambrose - pg 270.

32. The BCP – pg 82.

33. Readings in Christian Theology - St. Ambrose - pg 272.

34. Living Bread Saving Cup - Rouillard - Pg 129.

35. The BCP– pg 82.

36. Living Bread Saving Cup - Rouillard - Pg 130.

37. Systematic Theology Vol. 2 – David Power - pg 268.

38. ibid.

39. Anglican Missal– pg 71.

40. The Eucharistic Way - pg 72.

41. Living Bread Saving Cup – Ledogar pg 74.

42. ibid - John Quinn - pg 236.

43. Readings in Christian Theology – Schmemann - pg 286.

44. The Eucharistic Way - pg 44.

45. ibid.

46. Living Bread Saving Cup – Jerome Murphy-O’Connor - pg 25.

47. Everyday Theology - Daryl Olszewski - pg 62.

48. Communion pg 5.

49. The Ministry of Communion - Michael Kwatera - pg 12.

50. ibid.

51. The Eucharistic Way – Baycroft – pg 70.

52. ibid

53. Readings in Christian Theology – Schmemann pg 287.

54. ibid.

55. Living Bread, Saving Cup – R. Kevin Seasoltz - pg 323.

56. ibid.

57. ibid – pg 309.

58. ibid

59. The Eucharistic Way – pg 13.

60. ibid.

61. Everyday Theology – pg 63.

62. ibid – pg 62.

63. ibid

64. Sacraments & Sacramentality – Bernard Cooke - pg 167.

65. The Eucharistic Way – pg 66.

66. Communion – pg 17.

67. Living Bread Saving Cup – Ledogar pg 72.

68. ibid.

69. Readings in Christian Theology - St. Ambrose - pg 273.

70. Living Bread Saving Cup – Seasoltz - pg 323.

71. Readings in Christian Theology- Schmemann pg 283.

72. Ministry in the Church – Bernier pg 238.

73. Readings in Christian Theology- Schmemann pg 286.

74. ibid - pg 289.


Original Paper entitled Four Movements in the Eucharist submitted as a course requirement for D.Min. 8796 - Spiritual Direction /Formation - to Dr. John Sumarah - Acadia Divinity College - Published on April 16th, 2007 (Revised on July 30th, 2023)

© Dr. Charles Warner 2023

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